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trachea — the air passage that begins at the larynx and ends as the beginning of the principal right and left bronchi
transverse — crossing from side to side
trauma — a serious injury or shock to the body, as from violence or an accident
ulcer — a break in the skin or the surface of an organ; forms when the surface cells die and are cast off
Valsalva maneuver — the forced inflation of the middle ear by exhaling with the mouth closed and the nostrils pinched
vasoconstriction — narrowing of a blood vessel
venomous — secreting or transmitting venom (toxin)
venous — of, relating to or contained in the veins
venous gas emboli — inert gas bubbles in venous blood (that return to the heart
and lungs)
ventilation — the exchange of gases between a living organism and its environment; the act of breathing
ventral — relating to the front (anterior) part of the body
ventral horns — the two roots of a spinal nerve that passes ventrally from the spinal cord and that consists of motor fibers
ventricle — thick-walled, muscular chamber in the heart that receives blood from the atrium, pumping it through to the pulmonary or systemic circulation
ventricular fibrillation (VF) — a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them quiver rather than contract properly
venules — small veins
vertebra — the bones forming the spinal column
vertigo — a sensation of whirling motion, either of oneself or of external objects
vestibular — relating to the sense of equilibrium
volume of distribution — the volume in which the amount of drug would need to be uniformly distributed to produce the observed blood concentration