CLOSSARY A-Z

acute – rapid onset or short-term duration
adaptic gauze — non-adhering dressing
agonal breathing — an abnormal pattern of breathing characterized by gasping, labored breathing, accompanied by strange vocalizations and involuntary muscle twitching
ambient — surrounding on all sides
arrhythmia — a problem with the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat
aspiration — inhalation of fluid or a foreign body into the bronchi and lungs, often after vomiting
asymptomatic — without symptoms
bloodborne pathogens — infectious microorganisms in human blood that can cause disease in humans
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) — an emergency procedure that is performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person in cardiac arrest
chronic — persistent or long lasting
cirrhosis — a consequence of chronic liver disease, characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrosis, scar tissue and nodules, leading to loss of liver function
debridement — removal of dead, damaged or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of remaining healthy tissue
defibrillation — a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the affected heart with a device called a defibrillator, which depolarizes a critical mass of the heart muscle, terminates the arrhythmia and allows normal sinus rhythm to be reestablished by the body’s natural pacemaker
distal — away from the center of the body
dysrthymia — irregular or abnormal heart rate
electrolytes — minerals in your blood and other body fluids that carry an electric charge that affects the amount of water in your body, the acidity of your blood (pH), your muscle function and other important processes
first responder — as used in the context of this course, a first responder is an individual who arrives first on the scene and has first-aid training that addresses the immediate need for care until EMS arrives or the individual is transported to advanced medical care
hyperoxia — excess oxygen or higher than normal partial pressure of oxygen
hypovolemic — a state of decreased blood volume
hypoxia — inadequate oxygen content
intracerebral — occurring or situated within the brain
iodoform gauze — sterile gauze treated with an antiseptic
isothermal — of, relating to or indicating equal or constant temperatures
jaundice — a yellow color of the skin, mucus membranes or eyes
lethargy — the quality or state of being lazy, sluggish or indifferent
oronasal — pertaining to the mouth and nose
peripheral — related to or located in the outer boundary of the body
postictal — pertaining to the period following a seizure or convulsion
proximal — nearer to the center of the body
regurgitation — expulsion of material from the mouth, pharynx or esophagus, usually characterized by the presence of undigested food or blood; vomiting
resuscitation — to revive from apparent death or from unconsciousness
sepsis — a severe infection that affects the entire body
subcutaneous emphysema — gas bubbles under the skin that can be felt with the
fingers
symptomatic — showing symptoms
thrombus — blood clot
venomous — secreting or transmitting venom (toxin)
ventricular fibrillation (VF)
— a condition in which there is uncoordinated contraction of the cardiac muscle of the ventricles in the heart, making them quiver rather than contract properly

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