abrasion: a superficial excoriation, with loss of substance under the form of small shreds
acute: referring to symptoms or signs that begin and worsen quickly; an acute disease is a disease with a rapid onset (as in acute infection) and/or a short course (as opposed to a chronic course)
antivenom, antivenin or antivenene: a biological product used in the treatment of venomous bites or stings. Antivenoms are created by injecting small amounts of the targeted venom into an animal (typically horses, sheep, goats or rabbits) with the intention that the subject animal will develop antibodies against the venom’s active molecule. The plasma of the animals, containing the antibodies, can then be harvested from the animal’s blood and used to treat the envenomation.
aphonia: voice loss, inability to phonate sounds
ataxia (or ataxy): loss of coordination; inability to coordinate voluntary muscle movements; unsteady movements and staggering gait
bioaccumulation: the accumulation of substances in nature, in organisms or the environment
blood-brain barrier (BBB): a separation of circulating blood and cerebrospinal fluid in the central nervous system. It occurs along all capillaries and consists of tight junctions around the capillaries that don’t exist in normal circulation.
Chordata: a major phylum in the kingdom Animalia characterized by the presence of a spinal cord. Phylogenetically, this phylum includes all vertebrates and some closely related invertebrates.
chronic: disease or signs and symptoms that are long lasting or recurring
clades: a group of organisms that are classified together as descendants of a common ancestor
cyanosis: bluish color of the skin due to insufficient oxygen in the blood
debridement: surgical removal of foreign bodies and dead tissue from a wound
denaturation: a structural change in macromolecules (e.g., proteins) caused by extreme conditions such as heat or external stress such as a strong acid or base or a biological solvent such as alcohol or chloroform
diaphoresis: excessive perspiration, profuse sweating
dinoflagellates: microscopic unicellular organisms that share characteristics of both plants and animals and therefore do not fit into either kingdom; typically present in plankton, microscopic algae and microscopic bioluminescent organisms
diplopia: double vision; disorder of the vision in which one object is seen as two
dysesthesia: a condition in which a sense, especially touch, is distorted.
dysphagia: difficulty swallowing
dysphonia: difficulty in phonation or painful speech; typically a hoarse or weak voice; not to be confused with aphonia (inability to phonate sounds)
dyspnea: difficult, painful breathing or shortness of breath
edema: swelling caused by excess fluid in body tissues
erythema: redness of the skin
Eukaryota: from the Greek eu (“good” or “true”) and karyon (“nut” or “kernel,” which refers to the cell nucleus), meaning their cells have a true nucleus. Eukaryotes represent a complex form of biological evolution.