GLOSSARY B-D

barotrauma — physical damage to body tissues caused by a difference in pressure between an air space inside or beside the body and the surrounding fluid
bioaccumulation — the accumulation of substances in nature, in organisms or the
environment
bloodborne pathogens — infectious microorganisms in human blood that can cause disease in humans
blood brain barrier (BBB) — a separation of circulating blood and cerebrospinal fluid in the central nervous system. It occurs along all capillaries and consists of tight junctions around the capillaries that don’t exist in normal circulation.
bronchi — plural of bronchus, which is a division of the trachea
bronchiole — small branch of the bronchus that carries air to and from the alveoli
bronchospasm — bronchoconstriction, or the sudden narrowing of the smaller airways, of a spasmodic nature
capillary — microscopic blood vessels where the gas exchange takes place between the bloodstream and the tissues or the air in the lungs
carbon monoxide — a highly poisonous, odorless, tasteless and colorless gas formed when carbon material burns with restricted access to oxygen. It is toxic by inhalation since it competes with oxygen in binding with the hemoglobin, thereby resulting in diminished availability of oxygen in tissues.
cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) — an emergency procedure that is performed in an effort to manually preserve intact brain function until further measures are taken to restore spontaneous blood circulation and breathing in a person in cardiac arrest
cardiorespiratory — pertaining to the circulatory and respiratory systems
cartilaginous — pertaining to or composed of cartilage
cerebral — of, relating to or affecting the brain or cerebrum
cerebrovascular accident (CVA) — sudden death of some brain cells due to lack of oxygen when the blood flow to the brain is impaired by blockage or rupture of an artery to the brain; also referred to as a stroke
Chordata — a major phylum in the kingdom Animalia characterized by the presence of a spinal cord. Phylogenetically, this phylum includes all vertebrates and some closely related invertebrates.
chronic — persistent or long lasting (as opposed to acute)
cilia — long, slender microscopic hairs extending from cells and capable of rhythmic motion
cirrhosis — a consequence of chronic liver disease characterized by replacement of liver tissue by fibrosis, scar tissue and nodules, leading to loss of liver function
clades — a group of organisms that are classified together as descendants of a common ancestor
cutaneous — of, relating to or affecting the skin
cyanosis — bluish color of the skin due to insufficient oxygen in the blood
debridement — removal of dead, damaged or infected tissue to improve the healing potential of remaining healthy tissue; surgical removal of foreign bodies from a wound
defibrillation — a therapeutic dose of electrical energy to the affected heart with a device called a defibrillator, which depolarizes a critical mass of the heart muscle, terminates the arrhythmia and allows normal sinus rhythm to be reestablished by the body’s natural pacemaker
dehydration — an abnormal depletion of water and other body fluids
denaturation — a structural change in macromolecules, such as proteins, caused by extreme conditions such as heat or external stress such as a strong acid or base or a biological solvent such as alcohol or chloroform
Diameter Index Safety System (DISS) — intermediate pressure port where a hose attaches, leading to demand valve or other apparatus
diaphoresis — excessive perspiration, profuse sweating

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